While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus "master clock" of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length tau of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli "zeitgebers" , the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders CRSD. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles.
Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study
NonHour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study
There have been numerous reports in the literature on the descriptive similarities between a severe nightmare and an acute psychotic episode. Nightmares may be a prelude to psychotic decompensation, and it has been suggested that frequent lifelong nightmares may even be diagnostic of an underlying vulnerability to psychosis. In this report, we present a case study of a year old female experiencing chronic paranoid schizophrenia, whose two witnessed psychotic relapses in the hospital were immediately preceded by intense and vivid nightmare attacks. Significantly, the content of these nocturnal dreams was thematically consistent with her waking hallucinations, suggesting a direct continuity between these experiences. We propose that further systematic study of the dreams and nightmares of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia may be particularly useful in understanding their phenomenological experience.
Case Study - Disturbed sleep and vivid nightmares
The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process process S , which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in an approximately 24h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark LD cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the subthalamic nucleus SCN, master clock of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation.
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