The Huygens-Fresnel principle states that every point on a wavefront is a source of wavelets. These wavelets spread out in the forward direction, at the same speed as the source wave. The new wavefront is a line tangent to all of the wavelets. Christiaan Huygens was a Dutch scientist who developed a useful technique for determining how and where waves propagate. In , he proposed that every point that a luminous disturbance touches becomes itself a source of a spherical wave. The sum of the secondary waves waves that are a result of the disturbance determines the form of the new wave.
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Suppose you harm, offend, or otherwise wrong another person. Frankfurt :. Principle of Alternative Possibilities PAP : a person is morally responsible for what she has done only if she could have done otherwise. Although its precise form and interpretation have varied, this principle has enjoyed broad support in the history of philosophy. PAP was a standard—even if not universal—presupposition of Greek, medieval, and early modern thought Irwin ; Pasnau ; Rowe And until about fifty years ago, it was usually taken for granted by both sides in debates on whether moral responsibility is compatible with determinism.
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of group e. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives, understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of how the disputants act, their behavior.
For centuries, the study of logic has inspired the idea that its methods might be harnessed in efforts to understand and improve thinking, reasoning, and argument as they occur in real life contexts: in public discussion and debate; in education and intellectual exchange; in interpersonal relations; and in law, medicine and other professions. Informal logic is the attempt to build a logic suited to this purpose. It combines the study of argument, evidence, proof and justification with an instrumental outlook which emphasizes its usefulness in the analysis of real life arguing.