Population change often has weighty consequences throughout a society. As we think about population change, we usually think about and worry about population growth, but population decline is also a concern. Consider the experience of Michigan Dzwonkowski, Like several other northern states, Michigan has lost population during the past few decades. Its birth rate has declined by 21 percent from , and elementary school populations dropped as a result. Several schools lost so many students that they had to close, and others are in danger of closing.
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The most well-known theory of population is the Malthusian theory. The rapidly increasing population of England encouraged by a misguided Poor Law distressed him very deeply. He feared that England was heading for a disaster, and he considered it his solemn duty to warn his country-men of impending disaster. His theory is very simple. The increase in numbers is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence Population invariably increases when the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by powerful and obvious checks. Malthus based his reasoning on the biological fact that every living organism tends to multiply to an unimaginable extent. A single pair of thrushes would multiply into 19,, after the life of the first pair and 20 years later to 1,,,,,,, and if they stood shoulder to shoulder about one m every , would be able to find a perching space on the whole surface of the globe!
Theories of Population: Malthus Theory, Marx’s Theory and Theory of Demographic Transition
In his book An Essay on the Principle of Population , Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the well-being of the population, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words, humans had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the " Malthusian trap " or the "Malthusian spectre". Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship, want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease , a view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe.
In , a year-old British economist anonymously published a lengthy pamphlet criticizing the views of the Utopians who believed that life could and would definitely improve for humans on earth. Godwin, M. His father was a Utopian and a friend of the philosopher David Hume. In he attended Jesus College and graduated in ; in Thomas Malthus earned his master's degree. Thomas Malthus argued that because of the natural human urge to reproduce human population increases geometrically 1, 2, 4, 16, 32, 64, , , etc.