In , Adam Smith opened The Wealth of Nations with the observation that "the greatest improvements in the productive powers of labour, and the greatest part of the skill, dexterity, and judgement with which it is anywhere directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the division of labour. More than a century later, Durkheim could observe, apparently without exaggeration, that economists upheld the division of labor not only as necessary, but as "the supreme law of human societies and the condition of their progress. And like Smith, Durkheim recognized that this extended beyond the economic world, embracing not only political, administrative, and judicial activities, but aesthetic and scientific activities as well. Even philosophy had been broken into a multitude of special disciplines, each of which had its own object, method, and ideas. Unlike Smith, however, Durkheim viewed this "law" of the division of labor as applying not only to human societies, but to biological organisms generally.
Monitoring and evaluation
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Social casework is an ongoing process of exploration study , assessment diagnosis , formulation of goals and treatment planning, intervention treatment , evaluation and termination disengagement. Fern Lowry described this process as similar in form to a rope woven of multiple strands. When one cuts the rope at any point, all the component strands are exposed. In the same way, examination of social casework at any point of time reveals fact-finding, assessment diagnosis and intervention treatment taking place concurrently. The first three of the processes, viz. This method involves seeking and ordering information and determining the nature and strength of the evidence which supports it. The caseworker then makes inferences based on the information, theoretical knowledge, and the experience of himself and others.
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In the social sciences, the term case study refers to both a method of analysis and a specific research design for examining a problem, both of which can be used to generalize findings across populations. This tab focuses on the latter--how to design and organize a research paper that analyzes a specific case. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.
We were recently contracted by a major player in Zimbabwe. The company wanted to know if it was paying unnecessary labour costs as a result of overstaffing. The exercise required us to go into each department and establish if the department was overstaffed in its individual roles and job families and was an opportunity to identify departments that were understaffed. In this post you will read how we cut costs and improved productivity by reducing overstaffing and eliminating understaffing.