Biblical criticism is the use of critical analysis to understand and explain the Bible. During the eighteenth century, when it began as historical-biblical criticism, it was based on two distinguishing characteristics: 1 the scientific concern to avoid dogma and bias by applying a neutral, non-sectarian , reason-based judgment to the study of the Bible, and 2 the belief that the reconstruction of the historical events behind the texts, as well as the history of how the texts themselves developed, would lead to a correct understanding of the Bible. This set it apart from earlier, pre-critical methods; from the anti-critical methods of those who oppose criticism-based study; from later post-critical orientation, and from the many different types of criticism which biblical criticism transformed into in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Most scholars believe the German Enlightenment c. German pietism played a role in its development, as did British deism , with its greatest influences being rationalism and Protestant scholarship.
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Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom , that of WWII , the British Empire , early Islam , and China —and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history , there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state —remains a debated question. In the ancient world , chronological annals were produced in civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, the discipline of historiography was first established in the 5th century BC with the Histories of Herodotus , the founder of historiography.
The English American Sociology Association ASA developed a formatting style that allows scholars to use parenthetical in-text citations. In particular, the ASA formatting style remains relevant in social science. Moreover, this guide contains applicable rules that one must follow when formatting ASA essays, papers, and manuscripts.
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