Plasmodium , a genus of parasitic protozoans of the sporozoan subclass Coccidia that are the causative organisms of malaria. Plasmodium , which infects red blood cells in mammals including humans , birds, and reptiles, occurs worldwide, especially in tropical and temperate zones. The organism is transmitted by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. Other insects and some mites may also transmit forms of malaria to animals. Five species cause human malaria: P. There are several species that have been isolated from chimpanzees, including P.
The efficacy of repellents against Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Ixodes spp. - a literature review
LITERATURE REVIEW OF MALARIA IN THE WORLD TODAY
Malaria Journal volume 2 , Article number: 36 Cite this article. Metrics details. Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease of global concern with 1. In Indonesia, malaria is a major public health issue with around six million clinical cases and deaths each year.
Gene drives for mosquito population replacement are promising tools for malaria control. However, there is currently no clear pathway for safely testing such tools in endemic countries. The lack of well-characterized promoters for infection-relevant tissues and regulatory hurdles are further obstacles for their design and use. Here we explore how minimal genetic modifications of endogenous mosquito genes can convert them directly into non-autonomous gene drives without disrupting their expression.