Since the Second World War, there has been no major war between the great powers. The original post-war European project was based around peace, social justice and harmony. The unravelling of this project, accompanied by rising nationalism, is likely to exacerbate the dangers of war on a continent with a fraught history of bloody conflict. In the 20th century, both world wars were unanticipated.
A Timeline of the U.S.-Led War on Terror
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In the s, he led the government's military wing against rival militias; after the Taliban takeover, was the leading opposition commander against their regime  until his assassination in He began studying engineering at Polytechnical University of Kabul in the s, where he became involved with religious anti- communist movements around Burhanuddin Rabbani , a leading Islamist. He participated in a failed uprising against Mohammed Daoud Khan 's government. In , he signed the Peshawar Accord , a peace and power-sharing agreement, in the post-communist Islamic State of Afghanistan. His militia fought to defend Kabul against militias led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and other warlords who were bombing the city,  as well as later against the Taliban , who laid siege to the capital in January after the city had seen fierce fighting with at least 60, civilians killed.
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For a century, the East India Company conquered, subjugated and plundered vast tracts of south Asia. The lessons of its brutal reign have never been more relevant. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this word was rarely heard outside the plains of north India until the late 18th century, when it suddenly became a common term across Britain. To understand how and why it took root and flourished in so distant a landscape, one need only visit Powis Castle.
The roots of the Afghan civil war and the country's subsequent transformation into a safe-haven for the world's most destructive terror network began in the decades prior to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. As the United States prepared for war against Afghanistan, some academics or journalists argued that Usama bin Ladin's al-Qa'ida group and Afghanistan's Taliban government were really creations of American policy run amok. A pervasive myth exists that the United States was complicit for allegedly training Usama bin Ladin and the Taliban. For example, Jeffrey Sommers, a professor in Georgia, has repeatedly claimed that the Taliban had turned on "their previous benefactor. The roots of the Afghan civil war and the country's subsequent transformation into a safe-haven for the world's most destructive terror network is a far more complex story, one that begins in the decades prior to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.